How can land ownership affect the preservation of forest cover and soil protection? Another example: land ownership and use in Liberia is extremely complicated. Multiple systems of land use and ownership coexist, making it difficult to resolve land disputes. Property systems have been imposed by different regimes over time, and each parcel of land can come into conflict due to overlapping claims. Many Liberians are still wary of the formal system as they view the courts as costly wastes of time, and women and young people are dissatisfied with traditional forums where gender and age are likely to count against them. Given that many Liberians returned to their country after the civil war only to find themselves occupied by others, mediation, which worked with traditional and national institutions, was a welcome tool for the peaceful settlement of disputes between the various complainants. The National Land Commission and the Norwegian Refugee Council have been heavily involved in this task, for example in the Nimba district on the border with Côte d`Ivoire. Ethnic tensions in Nimba, fuelled and exploited during the wars, persist, and various groups have irreconcilable narratives of recent history. There are many disputes between Mano, Gio and Mandingo over land ownership. Until these disputes are resolved, individual and national food security cannot be guaranteed, as community trust has been destroyed by ethnic conflicts. Formal procedures for land ownership are still very long and costly, and the degree of agricultural land management varies between islands such as Java, with about 70 per cent of land permanently cultivated, and outlying islands such as Kalimantan and eastern Indonesia at less than 6 per cent (Birowo and Hansen, 1981). Land governance is how access to and control of natural resources is managed in a society. It includes the policies, processes and institutions used to manage land, property, natural resources and land ownership, including decisions on land use and management, land development, access to land, land value and land rights. Land management can also define mechanisms to balance the competing priorities and interests of different land users.
When the Kenyan government introduced the systematic and formal registration of land rights as part of the reforms introduced by Lord Swynnerton before independence, the ineffectiveness of such a bold measure quickly became apparent. In the words of two researchers (Shipton, 1988; Barrows and Roth, 1989, p. 7): However, it should be emphasized that any attempt to improve or establish governance for conservation, regardless of the location or existing participation of the state, must begin with a comprehensive study and assessment of existing rights and obligations related to land ownership and resource use. The first focus should be on the relationship and rights between the community and the government (inside or outside protected areas). For while land ownership in mountain areas may be less controversial, it is no more likely to be clearly articulated in laws or titles – and without a clear description of rights, community participation in governance is difficult, if not impossible (Knudsen, 1997). The high demand for totoaba caused more vaquitas to drown as bycatch, and the population fell from 567 people in 1997 to less than 20 in 2018. In response to international pressure, Mexico announced in 2015 a ban on gillnets with exceptions for two species of fish (Curvina and Sierra) in the Gulf to protect the vaquita. But the remoteness of the Gulf – surrounded by high cliffs and dotted with hundreds of deserted islands – has made it difficult for police, especially given the involvement of drug cartels in the illegal totoaba trade. Attempts to catch the vaquita to establish a captive breeding program have so far failed. Unless drastic measures are taken quickly, this species will disappear forever. The nine-page 1999 general comment 127 (Right to adequate food) on article 11 of the ICESCR contains much more detail on the right to land and food than that specified in article 11 itself.
The causes of food insecurity include poverty, deep-rooted social norms and insufficient awareness of the complex issues at stake; environmental degradation due to population pressure and climate change; Land uncertainty; water insecurity; rising food prices and price volatility; conflict; a weak framework environment in the public and private sectors; predisposition of the community to intestinal diseases and disorders; large-scale leasing of land by an investor or by a sovereign government of one country in another country; and large arable land set aside for biofuel production. An individual, family or community may be affected by one or more of these causes. Once the true potential and threat of the internet emerged, sales teams gave developers the license to do everything they could to maintain a decent online presence. Similar to a race for land grabbing in the pioneer era, it was considered a priority to be the first at all costs. The databases have been cloned; Requests were prototyped and sent. In many cases, strategic design was abandoned because the Internet was so disruptive and money was so readily available that a survival mentality prevailed. In addition, much of the technology that fueled the internet boom was immature, barely tested, and in some cases pure vaporware. In developing countries, disasters caused by urbanization, overpopulation and weak land and legal systems affect more people. Imposing radical changes from top to bottom when personal and civil affairs traditionally governed by common norms are at stake is likely to lead to strong resistance or negative reactions.