On May 22, the U.S. House of Representatives passed an amendment prohibiting the Department of Defense from using 2015 funds to meet the requirements of the New START Treaty. This blockade will continue until it is demonstrated that Russia is “complying” with other disarmament agreements and circumstances, in particular the situation in Ukraine. On 1 April, at the G20 meeting in London, Presidents Obama and Medvedev stressed the need for a lower level of strategic offensive weapons, including delivery systems and warheads, than that provided for in the SORT Agreement, and including verification measures “drawn from the parties` experience in implementing the START Treaty”. The two leaders underlined their intention to conclude the agreement before the expiry date of START I in December 2009. The 7. In March, Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and her Russian counterpart Sergey Lavrov met in Geneva, where both pledged to “revive” bilateral relations, which had cooled in recent years. They noted that as part of their efforts to rebuild their relations, the United States and Russia will seek to reach agreement on a new strategic arms reduction treaty by the end of 2009. Negotiations for START I began in May 1982, although the continuation of negotiations on the START process was repeatedly delayed because the terms of the US agreement were considered non-negotiable by Soviet leaders before Gorbachev. President Reagan`s introduction of the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) program in 1983 was seen as a threat by the Soviet Union, and the Soviets withdrew from establishing a timetable for further negotiations. However, in January 1985, US Secretary of State George Shultz and Soviet Foreign Minister Andrey Gromyko discussed a formula for a three-part negotiating strategy that included intermediate-range troops, strategic defense, and missile defense. At the Reykjavik Summit between Presidents Ronald Reagan and Mikhail Gorbachev in October 1986, negotiations on the implementation of the START programme were accelerated. Negotiations focused on strategic arms reduction when the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty was signed in December 1987.
 [Page needed] Nevertheless, a dramatic nuclear arms race occurred in the 1980s, which ended in 1991 essentially with the maintenance of nuclear parity at a level of more than ten thousand strategic warheads on both sides. The 4. In May 2009, the United States and Russia began renegotiating START, including both nuclear warheads and their carrier vehicles in a new agreement. Given the problematic issues between the two countries, the two sides agreed to further reduce the number of warheads they have stationed to about 1,000 to 1,500 each. The UNITED States said it was open to a Russian proposal to use the radar in Azerbaijan and not in Eastern Europe for the proposed missile system. The Bush administration insisted that Eastern Europe`s defense system was meant to deter Iran, while the Kremlin feared it would be used against Russia. The flexibility of both sides to compromise now will lead to a new phase of arms reduction in the future.  Verification arrangements in arms control treaties contain many instruments that enable them to hold parties accountable for their actions and violations of their contractual arrangements.  The verification provisions of the START Treaty were the most complex and demanding agreements at the time, as they provided for twelve different types of inspections. The exchange of data and declarations between parties, including the precise quantities, technical characteristics, locations, movements and status of all offensive nuclear threats, have become necessary. National Technical Means of Verification (NCDs) provide protected satellites and other information-gathering systems that are monitored by the verifying party, as they have helped to verify compliance with international treaties. The provision on international technical means of evidence protected multilateral technical systems provided for in other treaties.
Cooperative measures have been put in place to facilitate the verification of NCDs, including by displaying the elements in view rather than hiding them from detection. The new provisions on on-site inspections (OSI) and ongoing perimeter and portal monitoring (PPCM) have both helped to preserve the integrity of the contract by providing for a regulatory system with a representative of the auditing party at all times.  In addition, access to telemetry data from ballistic missile flight tests is now required, including the exchange of tapes and the prohibition of encryption and encapsulation by both parties.  [Page required] START I expired on December 5, 2009. Both sides agreed to continue to comply with the terms of the treaty until a new agreement is reached.  There are proposals for the renewal and expansion of the treaty, supported by US President Barack Obama. Sergei Rogov, director of the American and Canadian Institute, said: “Obama supports a sharp reduction in nuclear arsenals and I believe that Russia and the United States could sign a new treaty in the summer or fall of 2009 that would replace START-1.” He added that a new agreement would only see the light of day if Washington abandoned its plan to place elements of an anti-missile shield in Central Europe. However, he expressed his willingness to “take further steps in the field of disarmament,” but said they expected the United States to abandon its attempts to “surround Russia with a missile defense ring.” This concerned the placement of ten interceptor missiles in Poland, as well as an accompanying radar in the Czech Republic. .